The study of humans is one of the most fascinating endeavors that a researcher can undertake. In fact, human beings are so complex that multiple disciplines of study have been established so that we can choose to study the aspect of human behavior that interests us the most. The most popular fields of human study include psychology, sociology, and anthropology, each of which explores human behavior from a different perspective.
Many people who study human beings focus on psychology, or the study of individual behavior and mental processes. Psychologists study brain functions, emotions, cognition, and the development of relationships between people. Psychology also involves the study of abnormal behavior among individuals, and can include the analysis of intelligence and personality.
Sociology is another popular field of human study. Whereas psychology involves the study of individual human behavior, sociology focuses on the study of human groups and societies. Rather than focusing on cognition or mental processes as psychologists do, sociologists study the influencing factors that bind groups of humans together. Sociologists are more concerned with global social phenomena than interpersonal relationships, and they often focus their attention on organizations, associations, groups, and institutions.
A third discipline of human study is anthropology, or the study of human culture and society. While anthropology shares some similarities with both psychology and sociology, the distinguishing aspect of anthropology is a focus on the role that characteristics such as race, gender, anatomy, and biology have on humankind. Anthropologists also examine the impact that languages, kinships, and economic factors have on people.
In sum, the study of humans is a complex undertaking. Many people choose to study either individual people or groups of people, while others opt to study human cultures and races. Accordingly, separate fields of human study exist to provide researchers with a means by which they can target their focus.
Watch this video on the introduction to human behavioral biology, it will be worth your while.
If you want to use your career to give back to society, providing a valuable service to your community by leading and managing community organizations, government agencies or nonprofits,
Our code for life can be found deep within our blood cells. Inside the nucleus of the human blood cell are twenty-three pairs of DNA molecules called chromosomes. Chromosomes contain genetic material that governs the development of our physical characteristics such as blood type, eye color, and susceptibility to illness and disease. One chromosome in each pair is derived from our mother, and the other from our father.
Interestingly, each chromosome can vary in shape, and certain traits and disorders are associated with specific chromosomes. For instance, cystic fibrosis genes are associated with our seventh chromosome and Down Syndrome is associated with the twenty first chromosome.
Despite the fact that all living organisms share some chromosomal commonalities with each other, the total number of chromosomes found in humans varies greatly compared to that of other organisms. For instance, while humans possess twenty-three pairs of chromosomes, ants only possess two. Notably, the total number of chromosomes present in a being is not related to the overall complexity of an organism.
Video source: http://www.allthingsscience.com
The results of an investigation conducted by scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, United States, could solve one of the greatest challenges of science: how human beings can be brought back to life after being frozen.
The study revealed a previously unknown ability of organisms to survive the deadly cold temporarily slowing the biological processes that sustain life.
“We found that extending the limits of survival in the cold is possible, if oxygen consumption is the first to diminish,” said researcher Mark B. Roth in an interview with Live Science.
A form of forced hibernation “- condition known as” suspended animation “- implies the sudden suspension of the chemical reactions in the body due to lack of oxygen. A video that captured 10 hours of embryonic development of a baby worm showed a rapid freezing process of cell division after removal of oxygen from the environment. This cell division resumed two hours after oxygen was restored.
When subjected to freezing temperatures, embryos of yeast and worms do not survive, the researchers said. 99% of the embryos used in the experiment died after 24 hours of exposure to a temperature just above freezing.
But when deprived of oxygen, as described above, 66% of yeast and 97% of the worms survived. After warming and the reintroduction of oxygen, the two bodies were resurrected and showed normal life expectancy, said the authors of the research.
According to scientists, if you get a better understanding of the relationship between low oxygen and low temperatures, we could develop a way to extend, for example, the life of human organs for transplants.
The ultimate goal of this research is to gain time for patients in a state of physical shock – for example after a heart attack or severe loss of blood – and thus increase their chances of survival and preserve them until they can receive medical care, the researchers said .